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ISIL insurgency in Tunisia

ISIL insurgency in Tunisia refers to the ongoing militant and terror activity of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant branch in Tunisia. The activity of ISIL in Tunisia began in summer 2015, with the Sousse attacks, though an earlier terror incident in Bardo Museum in March 2015 was claimed the Islamic State, while the Tunisian government blamed Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade. Following massive border clashes near Ben Guerdance in March 2016, the activity of the ISIL group was described as armed insurgency,[2] switching from previous tactics of sporadic suicide attacks to attempts to gain territorial control.

Background

On 18 March 2015, three militants attacked the Bardo National Museum in the Tunisian capital city of Tunis, and took hostages.[3] Twenty-one people, mostly European tourists, were killed at the scene, while an additional victim died ten days later. Around fifty others were injured.[4] [5] [6] Two of the gunmen, Tunisian citizens Yassine Labidi and Saber Khachnaoui, were killed by police, while the third attacker is currently at large.[7] Police treated the event as a terrorist attack.[8] [9]

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attack, and threatened to commit further attacks.[10] However, the Tunisian government blamed a local splinter group of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, called the Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade, for the attack. A police raid killed nine members on 28 March.[11]

Timeline
2015
  • 24 November - a bus carrying Tunisian presidential guards exploded, killing 12, on a principal road in Tunis, Tunisia.[15] [16] ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack.[17] [18] The bomber, who also died in the attack, was identified as Houssem Abdelli.[19]
2016
  • 7–9 March - 2016 Ben Guerdane attack was an armed attack on 7 March 2016 in the city of Ben Gardane in Tunisia on the border with Libya. The clashes continued also on 8 and 9 of March in the area. The final death toll was 45 militants, 13 security and 7 civilians. On 19 March, 2 militants were killed on Libyan border, near to the site of the Ben Guerdane attack, while three civilians and a Tunisian security forces member were wounded.[20]
  • 30 March - 4 Tunisian troops were reported killed in an ambush by ISIL affiliates in Kasserine.[21]
  • 11 May - four police men were killed by IS attack, with the suicide bomber dying as well.[22] This followed the death of two suspected terrorists near Tunis.
  • 26 October - two Americans were detained by the authorities in Jendouba (northwestern Tunisia), being suspected of involvement with a terrorist organization.[23]
  • 5 November - militants killed the soldier at his home in the central region. A day later, ISIL claimed responsibility for the killing.[24]
  • 9 November - the Tunisian Army hunted down and shot dead a leader of a militant group affiliated with ISIL militants, this comes four days after the militant group killed a soldier at his house in central Tunisia.[25]
2017
  • 12 March - A police officer and two militants were killed in a shootout at a checkpoint in southern Tunisia that left three other officers injured.[26]
  • 2-3 June - A unit of the National Army discovered the body of the shepherd Khelifa Soltani on Saturday afternoon, on Mount Mghila. He had been kidnapped on Friday by a group of terrorists with another shepherd who hasn't been found yet.[27]
  • 8 June - A mine exploded at Jebel Mghila (Sidi Bouzid), during a sweep operation, killing 1 soldier and wounding another one.[28]
  • 16 June - A woman was injured when a IED went off near Mont Salloum in the Kasserine Governorate.[29]
  • 22 August - An IED blast wounded two soldiers on patrol in the heights of Kasserine.[30]
References
  1. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/27/africa/tunisia-terror-attack/
  2. Carlino, Ludovico (9 March 2016). "Islamic State attack on Ben Guerdane indicates shift in group's Tunisia strategy, to trigger insurgency". Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  3. Tarek Amara. "Gunmen storm Tunisian museum, kill two Tunisians, 17 foreign tourists site". Reuters. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  4. "The Latest: French President Mourns Tunisia Victims". The New York Times. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  5. "Museum attack a 'great calamity' for Tunisia's young democracy". Los Angeles Times. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  6. Death toll rises to 23, Associated Press, MSN News; accessed 19 March 2015.
  7. "Third Tunisia museum attacker 'on the run', says president". Agence France Presse, Yahoo News. March 22, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  8. "21 dead in Tunisia attack, Including Gunmen". Al-Jazeera.com. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  9. Marszal, Andrew (18 March 2015). "Gunmen 'take hostages' in attack on Tunisia parliament.". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  10. "ISIS Claims Responsibility For Tunisia Museum Attack". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  11. "Thousands of Tunisians, leaders march after Bardo attack". Reuters. 29 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  12. "Africa – Scores killed in terror attack on Tunisian beach resort". France 24.
  13. "Death toll from attack at Tunisia hotel rises to 39". WBTV. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  14. Payne, Ed; Black, Phil; Smith-Spark, Laura. "Tunisia attack: Tourists flee the country after gunman kills 38". CNN. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  15. Gandar, Kashmira (24 November 2015). "Tunisia bus explosion: Bomb kills 12 on Tunis bus in 'act of terror'". The Independent. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  16. Amara, Tarek (24 November 2015). "Bombing of Tunisia presidential guard bus kills 12". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  17. "Islamic State Claims Responsibility for Deadly Bus Attack in Tunis". The Wall Street Journal. 25 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  18. "Islamic State claims responsibility for fatal Tunis bus attack". The Guardian. 25 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  19. "Tunisia identifies bus suicide bomber as Tunisian national". Reuters.
  20. AFP (20 March 2016). "Tunisian forces kill 2 ‘terrorists’ near site of border attack".
  21. Desk, News (30 March 2016). "ISIS terrorists ambush 4 Tunisian soldiers in Kasserine".
  22. (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Four policemen killed in 'IS' suicide attack in Tunisia - News - DW.COM - 11.05.2016".
  23. "Tunisia Briefly Holds Two From U.S. on Suspicion of Terror Ties". The New York Times. 27 October 2016.
  24. "Tunisian soldier killed in his home: report". 6 November 2016.
  25. "PressTV-Tunisia military kills terrorist group leader".
  26. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tunisia-security-idUSKBN16J0GF
  27. http://www.espacemanager.com/decouverte-du-corps-de-khelifa-soltani-kidnappe-au-mont-mghilla.html/
  28. http://kapitalis.com/tunisie/2017/06/08/jebel-mghila-deux-soldats-blesses-dans-lexplosion-dune-mine/
  29. https://www.tunisienumerique.com/tunisie-femme-blessee-lexplosion-dun-mont-selloum/
  30. http://www.mosaiquefm.net/fr/actualite-regional-tunisie/190917/kasserine-deux-soldats-blesses-dans-l-explosion-d-une-mine
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The Deir ez-Zor offensive (December 2014) was a military operation launched by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on the Deir ez-Zor air base and the surrounding areas. Battle On 3 December, ISIL launched an offensive in the direction of the Deir Ezzor military airbase. They reportedly managed to capture the al-Masemekeh Building after a suicide bomber detonated a car near it, killing 19 soldiers and NDF fighters, according to the SOHR. In the clashes that followed, 7 ISIL militants were killed, while ISIL seized two tanks, an APC, an artillery piece, and machine guns. The next day, ISIL reportedly advanced further and captured al-Mari'iyah village, and they also captured parts of the al-Jafra village, while the Syrian Army reported that the 104th Airborne Brigade of the Republican Guard Killed over 20 ISIL militants, and seized 3 tanks. The same source named 17 ISIL casualties in from fighting in the al-Mari’ayyi area. The SAF conducted ten airstrikes on ISIL positions that day. On 5 Decembe



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The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on Ba'athist Iraq . They began August 6, 1990, four days after Iraq 's invasion of Kuwait , stayed largely in force until May 2003 (after Saddam Hussein 's being forced from power), and persisted in part, including reparations to Kuwait, through the present. The original stated purposes of the sanctions were to compel Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, to pay reparations, and to disclose and eliminate any weapons of mass destruction . Initially the UN Security Council imposed stringent economic sanctions on Iraq by adopting and enforcing United Nations Security Council Resolution 661 . After the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War , those sanctions were extended and elaborated on, including linkage to removal of weapons of mass destruction, by Resolution 687 . The sanctions banned all trade and financial resources except for medicine and "in humanitarian circumstances" foodstuffs, the import



List of armed conflicts in 2015

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The following is a list of armed conflicts with victims in 2015 . Locations of conflicts worldwide in 2015    Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in 2015    Wars, 1,000–9,999 deaths in 2015    Minor conflicts, 100–999 deaths in 2015    Skirmishes and clashes, fewer than 100 deaths in 2015 ← 2014 2016 → Conflict-related fatalities in the world's 15 deadliest countries in 2013, 2014 and 2015. List guidelines This list is an archive of armed conflicts having done globally at least 100 victims and at least 1 victim during the year 2015. 10,000+ deaths in 2015 Start of conflict Conflict Continent Location Fatalities in 2015 1978 War in Afghanistan War in Afghanistan (2015–present) Asia   Afghanistan 15,000 –36,345 2003 Iraq War Iraqi Civil War (2014–present) Asia   Iraq 22,736 2009 Boko Haram insurgency Africa   Nigeria   Cameroon   Niger   Chad 11,778 2011 Syrian Civil War Asia   Syria 55,219 1,000–9,999 deaths in 2015 Start of conflict Conflict Continent Location Fatalities in 2015 1984 Kurdish–Turkish conflict Kurdish–T



List of terrorist incidents in 2015

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The timeline list of terrorist incidents which took place in 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives, is split by month: List of terrorist incidents in January 2015 List of terrorist incidents in February 2015 List of terrorist incidents in March 2015 List of terrorist incidents in April 2015 List of terrorist incidents in May 2015 List of terrorist incidents in June 2015 List of terrorist incidents in July 2015 List of terrorist incidents in August 2015 List of terrorist incidents in September 2015 List of terrorist incidents in October 2015 List of terrorist incidents in November 2015 List of terrorist incidents in December 2015 Terrorist incidents by country Terrorist incidents by country in 2015 Country Number of incidents Deaths Injuries   Iraq 2,743 8,831 13,322   Afghanistan 1,926 6,208 6,958   Pakistan 1,235 1,606 1,847   India 882 387 647   Philippines 717 444 752   Yemen 668 2,373 3,065   Ukraine 637 765 1,401   Nigeria 637 5,351 2,854   Egypt 582 790 1,000   Libya



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Qajar dynasty

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The Qajar dynasty (   listen   ; Persian : سلسله قاجار ‎‎ Selsele-ye Qājār ; also romanised as Ghajar , Kadjar , Qachar etc.; Azerbaijani : قاجارلر Qacarlar ) was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe , which ruled Persia ( Iran ) from 1785 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was officially known as the Sublime State of Persia ( Persian : دولت علیّه ایران ‎‎ Dowlat-e Aliyye-ye Irān ). The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan , the last of the Zand dynasty , and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus . In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty , and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects . In the Caucasus , the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia , Dagestan , Azerbaijan , and Ar



Council of Representatives of Iraq

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The Council of Representatives of Iraq ( Arabic : مجلس النواب العراقي ‎‎ Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy، Kurdish : ئه‌نجومه‌نی نوێنه‌رانی عێراق، Encumena Nûnerên Êraq) is the unicameral legislature of Iraq . It is currently composed of 328 seats and meets in Baghdad inside the Green Zone . History The monarchy An elected Iraqi parliament first formed following the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 1925. The 1925 constitution called for a bicameral parliament whose lower house, the Chamber of Deputies (Majlis an-Nuwwab) would be elected based on universal manhood suffrage . The upper house, the Senate (Majlis al-A`yan) was appointed by the king. Ten elections took place between 1925 and the coup of 1958. On January 17, 1953 elections for the Chamber of Deputies (also known as the National Assembly) took place. Following controversy over the implementation of the so-called Baghdad Pact , Prime Minister Nuri Pasha as-Said called elections the following year, in early 1954. As-Said dissolved the assembl



List of designated terrorist groups

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This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities. Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the legal definition of terrorism . This listing does not include unaffiliated individuals accused of terrorism, which are considered under lone wolf terrorism . This list also excludes groups that might be widely considered terrorist, but who are not officially so designated according to the criteria specified above. This list is not all inclusive. For more inclusive lists, including people, entities (corporations), and specific vehicles, refer to lists under Process of designation . Organizations currently officially designated as terrorist by various governments The list includes references to organisations associated with Al-Qaed



United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations

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" Foreign Terrorist Organization " ( FTO ) is a designation for non-United States-based organizations deemed by the United States Secretary of State , in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), to be involved in what US authorities define as terrorist activities . Most of the organizations on the list are Islamist extremist groups, nationalist/separatist groups or Marxist militant groups. The Department of State, along with the Treasury Department , also has the authority to designate individuals and entities as subject to counter-terrorism sanctions according to Executive Order 13224 . The Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control maintains a separate list of such individuals and entities. Identification of candidates The Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (S/CT) in the US State Department continually monitors the activities of groups it does not support active around the world considered potentially "terrorist" to identify targets for designation. When



List of proxy wars

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This is a list of proxy wars . Major powers have been highlighted in bold. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. For example, the United States has been supporting the Syrian rebels (Opposition), whilst Russia has been supporting the Syrian government led by Bashar al-Assad. Here the Syrian rebels are a proxy for the United States, and the Syrian government a proxy for Russia. Pre-World War I proxy wars War Date Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result Egyptian–Ottoman War 1839-1841 Egypt-aligned powers: Egypt Kingdom of the French Spain Allied powers: British Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Ottoman Empire Stalemate Uruguayan Civil War 1839-1851 Colorados Unitarian Party   Empire of Brazil Italian Legion France   Great Britain Blancos   Argentine Confederation Combatant 1 Won Mahdist War 1881-1899   British Empire   Canada



Abu Umar al-Tunisi

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Tariq bin al-Tahar bin al-Falih al-'Awni al-Harzi (3 May 1982 – 16 June 2015), known as Abu Umar al-Tunisi , was a Tunisian man and senior leader of the Islamic State . History He was born either 03 May 1982, 05 March 1982 or in 1981 in Tunis , Tunisia . According to the US government, he was one of first militants to join the Islamic State , traveling to Iraq as a foreign fighter after the US invasion of the country. In October 2007, IS personnel records were captured by coalition forces in a raid near Sinjar . These records contain a mention of Abu Umar al-Tunisi. A note mentions that he was a soldier, had received medical treatment for an unspecified injury and was returning to his station in Abu Ghraib , Iraq . Syria 2013 Since 2013, he was recruiting and facilitating the travel of fighters for IS. He was named IS's emir for the Syria–Turkey border and he received new foreign fighter recruits and provided them light weapons training before sending them to Syria. He arranged the movement of Europeans to Tu



List of revolutions and rebellions

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The storming of the Bastille , 14 July 1789, during the French Revolution . This is a list of revolutions and rebellions . BC c. 2730 BC: The Set rebellion during the reign of the pharaoh Seth-Peribsen of the Second Dynasty of Egypt . c. 2690 BC: Khasekhemwy , the final pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt , squashed a rebellion, reuniting Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt . c. 2380 BC ( short chronology ): A popular revolt in the Sumerian city of Lagash deposes King Lugalanda and puts the reformer Urukagina on the throne. 842 BC: After the Compatriots Rebellion exiled King Li of Zhou , China was ruled by the Gonghe Regency until the king died in exile. 615 BC: The Babylonians revolt against rule from the Assyrian Empire . 570 BC: A revolt breaks out among native Egyptian soldiers, giving Amasis II opportunity to seize the throne. 522 BC: Multi scattered rebellion against the king Darius the Great and suppress all rebels. Story of that is at Behistun Inscription 509 BC: A political revolution in ancient Rome , fo



Abdullah II of Jordan

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Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein ( Arabic : عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين ‎‎, ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since the 1999 death of his father, King Hussein . According to Abdullah, he is a 41st-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family—who have ruled Jordan since 1921. He was born in Amman as the first child of King Hussein and his second wife, British-born Princess Muna . Shortly after his birth, Abdullah was named the crown prince . King Hussein transferred the title to his brother, Prince Hassan , in 1965 and unexpectedly returned it to Abdullah in early 1999 just a few weeks before his death. Abdullah began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad. He assumed command of Jordan's Special Forces in 1994, and became a major general in 1998. In 1993 Abdullah married Rania Al-Yassin (of Palestinian descent), and they have four children: Crown Prince Hussein , Princess Iman , Princess Salma and Prince Hashem . The ruler



List of genocides by death toll

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This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide . It does not include non-genocidal mass killing such as the Thirty Years War (7 & 1/2 million deaths), Japanese War Crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (3 to 13 million deaths), the 1965–1966 Indonesian Politicide (1/2 to 3 million deaths) or the Great Leap Forward (15 to 55 million deaths). The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Various other definitions can be found in scholarly literature, but they have no legal weight. List of the genocides Event Location From To Lowest estimate Highest estimate  % The Holocaust (Lower figures (5-6 million) are for the Jewish genocide, and the higher figures (11-17 million) is for the total killed in all Nazi genocides and War Crimes.) Nazi-Germany controlled Europ



Christianity in Iraq

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The Christians of Iraq are considered to be one of the oldest continuous Christian communities in the world. The vast majority are indigenous Eastern Aramaic -speaking ethnic Assyrians. There is also a small community of Syriacs, Armenians and populations of Kurdish , Arab and [[Iraqi Turkmens. Most present-day Christians are ethnically different from Kurds and they identify themselves as being separate peoples, of different origins and with distinct histories of their own. In Iraq, Christians numbered about 1,500,000 in 2003, representing just over 7% of the population of 22 million (down from 1.4 million or 8.5% of 16.5 million in 1987). Since then, it has been estimated that the number of Christians in Iraq have dropped to as low as 450,000 by 2013. However, due to a lack of an official census, the number is difficult to estimate and could be as high as 1.2 million. The most widely followed denomination among Iraq Christians is the Chaldean Catholic Church . Christians live primarily in Baghdad , Basra ,



Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket siege

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This attack occurred at a Hypercacher kosher superette in Porte de Vincennes ( 20th arrondissement of Paris ) in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo shooting two days earlier, and concurrently with the Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis in which the two Charlie Hebdo gunmen were cornered. Amedy Coulibaly had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , and was a close friend of Saïd Kouachi and Chérif Kouachi (whom he had met in jail in 2005), the gunmen in the Charlie Hebdo attack. Armed with a submachine gun , an assault rifle , and two Tokarev pistols , he entered and attacked the people in the kosher food superette. Coulibaly murdered four Jewish hostages, and held fifteen other hostages during a siege in which he demanded that the Kouachi brothers not be harmed. The police ended the siege by storming the store and killing Coulibaly. Hostage-taking On 9 January 2015, Amedy Coulibaly , who had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , attacked the people in a Hypercache



List of conflicts involving the United Kingdom

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This is a list of conflicts involving the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its predecessors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain . The Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707 through the Acts of Union 1707 , which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland into a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands. It did not include the Kingdom of Ireland , which although under British control, remained a separate realm. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom and the state was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. During its history, British forces or forces with a British mandate have invaded, had some control over or fought conflicts in 171 of the world's 193 countries that are currently UN member states, or nine out of



Saddam Hussein

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Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( ; Arabic : صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī ; 28 April 1937  – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq , serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party , and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party —which espoused Ba'athism , a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism —Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution ) that brought the party to power in Iraq. As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr , and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the sy



McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle

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The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing ) F-15E Strike Eagle is an American all-weather multirole strike fighter derived from the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle . The F-15E was designed in the 1980s for long-range, high speed interdiction without relying on escort or electronic-warfare aircraft . United States Air Force (USAF) F-15E Strike Eagles can be distinguished from other U.S. Eagle variants by darker aircraft camouflage and conformal fuel tanks mounted along the engine intake ramps . The Strike Eagle has been deployed for military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, and Libya, among others. During these operations the F-15E has carried out deep strikes against high-value targets , combat air patrols , and provided close air support for coalition troops. It has also been exported to several countries. Development Origins The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle had been introduced by the United States Air Force (USAF) as a replacement for its fleet of McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs . However, unlike the F-4, the



Jihad

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Jihad ( English: ; Arabic : جهاد ‎‎ jihād ) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law , the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups. The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations, often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah )". Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era



List of wars and battles involving al-Qaeda

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The following is a list of conflicts involving the militant group known as al-Qaeda throughout its various incarnations. The group currently controls portions of territory in Pakistan , Syria , Somalia and Yemen and has taken part in many battles and wars. Wars War on Terror Soviet–Afghan War Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–92) Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–96) Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) War in Afghanistan (2001–2014) War in Afghanistan (2015–present) Civil war in Tajikistan Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Yemeni Civil War (2015) Maghreb insurgency Northern Mali conflict Iraq War Iraqi insurgency War in North-West Pakistan First Somali Islamist War Second Somali Islamist War Factional violence in Libya (2011–14) Libyan Civil War (2014–present) Syrian Civil War Military intervention against ISIL American-led intervention in Syria Battles Battle Allies Opponents Outcome Battle of Kabul (1992–96) (April 30, 1992 – September 27, 1996) Al-Qaeda Taliban Islamic State of Afghanistan Shura-e Nazar Jamiat-i Isl



Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy war

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The Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy war is the ongoing struggle for regional influence between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . The countries have provided varying degrees of support to opposing sides in nearby conflicts, including the civil wars in Syria , Yemen , and Iraq . The rivalry also extends to disputes in Bahrain , Lebanon , Qatar , Pakistan , and Afghanistan , as well as broader competition in South and Central Asia . In what has been described as a cold war , the conflict is waged on multiple levels over geopolitical, economic, and sectarian influence. American support for Saudi Arabia and its allies along with growing Russian support for Iran have drawn comparisons to the Cold War era, and the proxy conflict has been characterized as a front in what Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has referred to as the " New Cold War ". Background The proxy conflict can be traced back to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, when the monarchic Imperial State of Iran became an Islamic r



Paolo Gentiloni

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Paolo Gentiloni Silveri ( Italian pronunciation:  ; born 22 November 1954) is an Italian politician who has been Prime Minister of Italy since 12 December 2016. Gentiloni, a member of the Democratic Party , served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 31 October 2014 until December 2016, when President Sergio Mattarella asked him to form a new government. Previously, he was Minister of Communications from 2006 to 2008, during the second government of Romano Prodi . Early life and family A descendant of Count Gentiloni Silveri, he is related to the Italian politician Vincenzo Ottorino Gentiloni , who was the leader of the conservative Catholic Electoral Union and a key ally of the long-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti . Gentiloni has the titles of Nobile of Filottrano , Nobile of Cingoli , and Nobile of Macerata . Born in Rome , he attended the Classical Lyceum Torquato Tasso in the city and graduated in political sciences at the La Sapienza University . Gentiloni was a professional journalist before enter



Bashar al-Assad

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Bashar Hafez al-Assad ( Arabic : بشار حافظ الأسد ‎‎ Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al-ʾAsad , Levantine pronunciation: ;   English pronunciation   ; born 11 September 1965) is the 19th and current President of Syria , holding the office since 17 July 2000. He is also commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces , General Secretary of the ruling Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party and Regional Secretary of the party's branch in Syria . He is a son of Hafez al-Assad , who was President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. Born and raised in Damascus , Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in 1988, and started to work as a doctor in the Syrian Army . Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology . In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent . He entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian military presence in Lebanon in 1998. On 10 July 2000, Ass



Timeline of the Libyan Civil War (2014–present)

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The following is the timeline of the Libyan Civil War (2014–present) , which began in May 2014 and is currently ongoing. 2014 16–17 May 2014: Operation Dignity offensive in Benghazi Fighting Hostilities first broke out early in the morning of Friday 16 May 2014 when Gen. Haftar's forces assaulted the bases of certain Benghazi Islamist militia groups, including the one blamed for the 2012 assassination of US ambassador Christopher Stevens . Helicopters, jets and ground forces took part in the assault, killing at least 70, and injuring at least 250. Haftar has vowed to not stop until the extremists groups are purged. Shortly before the assault Haftar reportedly asked a close friend, "Am I committing suicide?" The operation, codenamed "Operation Dignity" by Haftar, began when forces loyal to General Haftar attacked units of the February 17th Martyrs Brigade , the Libya Shield No. 1 Brigade (also known as Deraa No. 1 Brigade), and Ansar al-Sharia . Fighting was largely confined to the south western Benghazi dis



History of Saudi Arabia

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The history of Saudi Arabia in its current form as a state began with its foundation in 1930 by Abdulaziz Al Saud , although the human history of the region extends as far as 20,000 years ago. The region has had a global impact twice in world history: In the 7th century it became the cradle of Islam and the first center of the caliphate . From the mid-20th century the discovery of vast oil deposits propelled it into a key economic and geo-political role. At other times, the region existed in relative obscurity and isolation, although from the 7th century the cities of Mecca and Medina had the highest spiritual significance for the Muslim world , with Mecca becoming the destination for the Hajj pilgrimage , an obligation, at least once in a believer's lifetime, if at all possible. For much of the region's history a patchwork of tribal rulers controlled most of the area. The Al Saud (the Saudi royal family) emerged as minor tribal rulers in Najd in central Arabia. From the mid-18th century, imbued with the reli



9 September 2016 Baghdad bombings

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The 9 September 2016 Baghdad bombings occurred just before midnight on Friday, 9 September 2016. Twin suicide bombings occurred at the al-Nakheel Mall in Palestine Street , in eastern Baghdad . A car rigged with explosives detonated at the car park of the mall and an assailant blew up his car in a busy street outside shortly afterwards. At least 40 people were killed and 60 wounded. The bombings were later claimed by Islamic State . The Amaq News Agency , which supports Islamic State, said that the bombers targeted "a gathering of Shi'ites". See also American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) List of terrorist incidents in September 2016 List of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL List of mass car bombings Military intervention against ISIL Number of terrorist incidents by country Timeline of ISIL-related events (2016) List of Islamist terrorist attacks Timeline of the Iraq War (2016) War on Terror References "35 killed, 40 wounded in twin car bomb attacks in Baghdad" . PressTV. September 10, 2016 . R



Timeline of the War on Terror

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The War on Terror is the campaign launched by the United States of America in response to the September 11 attacks against organizations designated with terrorism. The campaign, whose stated objective was eliminating international terrorism, began in 2001. The following is a timeline of events linked to the War on Terror . Conflict primarily by region North America Europe Other Far East Western Asia South Asia North Africa West Africa East Africa Political Multiple locations 2001 Twin towers of the World Trade Center burning on September 11, 2001. American and British special forces operators at Tora Bora , December 2001. Dates Events September 11 The September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City , Washington D.C. , and Shanksville, Pennsylvania , United States, killed 2,993 people. September 12 The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1368 : condemning the September 11 attacks, calling on all countries to co-operate in bringing the perpetrators, organisers and sponsors of the attac



Islam in Iraq

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Sects of Islam in Iraq Religions percent Shia Islam    51% Sunni Islam    46% Imam Ali Mosque The history of Islam in Iraq goes back almost 1,400 years to the lifetime of Muhammad (died 632). Iraq's Muslims follow two distinct traditions, Shia and Sunni Islam. Arabic-speaking Shias are known as Iraqiyyuns, and Arabic-speaking Sunnis are known as Jaziran Arabs. Iraq is home to many religious cities important for both Shia and Sunni Muslims. Baghdad was a hub of Islamic learning and scholarship for centuries and served as the capital of the Abassids . The city of Karbala has substantial prominence in Shia Islam as a result of the Battle of Karbala , fought in October 10, 680. Similarly, Najaf is renowned as the site of the tomb of Alī ibn Abī Tālib (also known as "Imām Alī"), whom the Shia consider to be the righteous caliph and first imām . The city is now a great center of pilgrimage from throughout the Shi'a Islamic world and it is estimated that only Mecca and Medina receive more Muslim pilgrims. The city o



Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region

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The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region ( Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق ‎‎ Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch , is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi . It was part of the original Ba'ath Party (1951–1966), changing its allegiance to the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath movement following the 1966 split within the Ba'ath Party. History Early years and the 14 July Revolution: 1951–1958 Rikabi was one of the leading figures in early Ba'athist history The Iraqi Regional Branch of the Ba'ath Party was established in 1951 or 1952. Some historians claim that the Iraqi Regional Branch was established by Abd ar Rahman ad Damin and Abd al Khaliq al Khudayri in 1947 after their return from the founding congress of the Ba'ath Party held in Damascus , Syria the same year. In another version, Fuad al-Rikabi established the Iraqi Regional Branch in 1948 with Sa'dun Hamadi, a Shia Muslim, but became secr




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